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Pathways to Science: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

Diversity Reference Library


This reference library provides an overview of resources (organizations, policy documents, research studies, intervention studies, etc.) that relate to broadening participation in the sciences.

Resources are organized into the following sections:


References marked with a star are considered key references.



"Must Read" - Key Diversity References


(2007-2015) Understanding Interventions that Broaden Participation in Science Careers: Conference Reports.
Despite the introduction of intervention programs, persons of color and women remain underrepresented in the science workforce. To encourage members of underrepresented groups to pursue careers in science and engineering, programs targeted to pre-college, undergraduate, and graduate students continue to grow. However, understanding of why some succeed and many more fail eludes us. UI seeks to analyze systematically the key factors contributing to and inhibiting success. Such analysis requires research that is carefully designed and executed over more than 1-2 years’ time. It should not be confused with “program evaluation” that produces evidences of effectiveness. Research studies of interventions look across contexts and populations to inform generalizations about causes and effects.


George, Y.S., Neale, D.S., Van Horne, V., and Malcom, S.M. (2001) In Pursuit of a Diverse Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Workforce: Recommended Research Priorities to Enhance Participation by Underrepresented Minorities. American Association for the Advancement of the Sciences (AAAS)
This report identifies research priorities for URM in STEM from the high school years to the professoriate.


Hill, C., Corbett, C. and St. Rose, A. (2010) Why So Few? Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. AAUW
A study of women's underrepresentation in the STEM fields.


Kania, John and Kramer, Marke (2011) Collective Impact. Stanford social innovation review,
Large-scale social change requires broad cross-sector coordination, yet the social sector remains focused on the isolated intervention of individual organizations.


Miller, Casey, and Keivan G. Stassun (2014) A test that fails. Nature, 510 (June): 303–4
A standard test for admission to graduate school misses potential winners. De-emphasizing the GRE and augmenting admissions procedures with measures of other attributes — such as drive, diligence and the willingness to take scientific risks — would not only make graduate admissions more predictive of the ability to do well but would also increase diversity in STEM. Instead of filtering by GRE scores, graduate programmes can select applicants on the basis of skills and character attributes that are more predictive of doing well in scientific research and of ultimate employability in the STEM workforce. Appraisers should look not only at indicators of previous achievements, but also at evidence of ability to overcome the tribulations of becoming a PhD-level scientist.


National Research Council, and National Research Council (2011) Expanding Underrepresented Minority Participation: America’s Science and Technology Talent at the Crossroads. National Academies Press, AAAS
In order for the United States to maintain the global leadership and competitiveness in science and technology that are critical to achieving national goals, we must invest in research, encourage innovation, and grow a strong and talented science and technology workforce. Expanding Underrepresented Minority Participation explores the role of diversity in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) workforce and its value in keeping America innovative and competitive. According to the book, the U.S. labor market is projected to grow faster in science and engineering than in any other sector in the coming years, making minority participation in STEM education at all levels a national priority.


National Science Foundation (2008) Broadening Participation at the National Science Foundation: A Framework for Action. Washington, D.C.
This report states: "The creative engagement of diverse ideas and perspectives is essential to enabling the transformative research that invigorates our nation's scientific and engineering excellence . . . and provides for the discovery and nurturing of talent wherever it may be found . . .[an] emphasis consistent with the American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI) and the America Competes Act, federal responses to the widespread concern that the U.S. is in danger of losing its position of world leadership in science and technology." The report goes on to present guidelines for NSF’s drive to increase diversity as related to proposal review criteria for intellectual merit and broader impacts. The report addresses strategies for diversifying the reviewer pool, training NSF staff and reviewers on broadening participation, enhancing accountability, communicating guidance and promising practices on broadening participation, and maintaining a portfolio of relevant programs.


National Science Foundation (2015) Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering.
This website provides statistical information about the participation of women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering education and employment. Its primary purpose is to serve as an information source. It offers no endorsement of or recommendations about policies or programs. New for 2011, it highlights key statistics drawn from a wide variety of data sources. It organizes data and figures into six topical areas—enrollment, field of degree, employment status, occupation, academic employment, and persons with disabilities.


Sowell, Robert, Jeff Allum, and Hironao Okahan (2015) Doctoral Initiative on Minority Attrition and Completion. Council of Graduate Schools,
The Doctoral Initiative on Minority Attrition and Completion (DIMAC) takes our understanding of completion and attrition among URM STEM students one step further by collecting both quantitative and qualitative data exclusively on this population from 21 participating institutions, yielding the largest dataset of its kind. This publication reports and synthesizes the findings of the project in order to better inform graduate deans at CGS member institutions as well as the general public.


US President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) (2012) Report to the President: “Engage to Excel: Producing One Million Additional College Graduates With Degrees In Science, Technology, Engineering, And Mathematics”.
This report calls for the implementation of evidence-based practices to increase the number of US STEM graduates by one million additional students over the next decade. Among the suggested techniques are capturing the thrill of discovery and inquiry during students’ first two years as undergraduates and student research partnerships between smaller institutions and large research institutions.




Demographic Patterns of Diversity in the Sciences and Higher Education


Cuker, B. (2001) Steps to increasing minority participation in the aquatic sciences: catching up with shifting demographics. American Society of Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin, v. 10, p. 17-21


Czujko, R., and M. Henley (2003) Good news and bad news: Diversity data in the geosciences. Geotimes, 20–22, Sept.


Czujko, R., R. Ivie and J. H. Stith (2008) Untapped Talent: The African American Presence in Physics and the Geosciences. American Institute of Physics Report, Pub. R-444. pages i-22 (Sept. 2008)
This paper presents data covering the representation of African Americans among physics and geoscience degree recipients at each stage of the educational system. The data were collected by several statistical agencies. This paper presents a snapshot of the supply side of physics and the geosciences and places the education of African American physicists and geoscientists within the larger context of the educational system and social structural barriers some students must circumvent. The paper identifies institutions that have reduced or removed these barriers, highlights striking contributions of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) in supplying the scientific workforce of African Americans, lists departments that have been successful in attracting and retaining African American students, to use as role models. See page 11 in particular for a Table on BS granting departments in the geosciences at HBCUs.


Hill, C., Corbett, C. and St. Rose, A. (2010) Why So Few? Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. AAUW
A study of women's underrepresentation in the STEM fields.


National Science Foundation (2015) Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering.
This website provides statistical information about the participation of women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering education and employment. Its primary purpose is to serve as an information source. It offers no endorsement of or recommendations about policies or programs. New for 2011, it highlights key statistics drawn from a wide variety of data sources. It organizes data and figures into six topical areas—enrollment, field of degree, employment status, occupation, academic employment, and persons with disabilities.


National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (2015) Doctorate Recipients from U.S. Universities: 2014. Special Report NSF 16-300,
Annual counts of doctorate recipients are measures of the incremental investment in human resources devoted to science, engineering, research, and scholarship, and they can serve as leading indicators of the capacity for knowledge-creation and innovation in various domains. The changing characteristics of this population over time—including the increased representation of women, minorities, and foreign nationals; emergence of new fields of study; time it takes to complete doctoral study; expansion of the postdoctoral pool; and reduced academic employment opportunities after graduation—reflect political, economic, social, technological, and demographic trends and events.


S.C. Sanchez, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; L.C. Patino, E.L. Rom, S.C. Weiler, National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA (2009) An Analysis of NSF Geosciences 2009 Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Site Programs.
The NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduate (REU) Program provides undergraduate students with opportunities to conduct research at other institutions than their home universities, and in areas that may not be available at their home campuses. NSF Directorate for Geosciences program officers Lina Patino, Lisa Rom and Susan Weiler, along with researcher Sara Sanchez of the University of Arizona, will discuss results of a survey on REU recruitment methods, student demographics, enrichment activities, and fields of research. The survey was sent to the principal investigators of each of 50 active REU Sites; more than 70 percent of the surveys were returned. The results are being used to examine strengths in REU sites, find opportunities that may be underutilized, and identify community needs for enhancing this NSF-wide program.




Culturally Reliable and Valid Program Evaluation


American Association for the Advancement of Science (2011) Measuring Diversity: An evaluation guide for STEM graduate program leaders.
A Final Product of an Evaluation Capacity Building Project Funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Division of Research on Learning in Formal and Informal Settings and the Alliances for Graduate Education and the Professoriate Program (AGEP)


Aroturuki me te Arotakenga (Ministry of Maori Development),Te Puni Kökiri (Monitoring and Evaluation Branch) (1999) Evaluation for Maori: Guidelines for Government Agencies.


Clewell, B.C. & Fortenberry, N. (Eds.), Bramwell, F., Campbell, P.B., Clewell, B.C., Davis, D., Fortenberry, N., García, A., Nelson, D., Thomas, V.G., Stoll, A. (2009) Framework for Evaluating Impacts of Broadening Participation Projects: Report from a National Science Foundation Workshop. The National Science Foundation
This report grew out of a workshop sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) in Arlington, Virginia, on April 17-18, 2008. The workshop was structured around responding to two questions: What metrics should be used for project monitoring? What designs and indicators should be used for program evaluation? The workshop resulted in providing information for NSF about what it should require for program monitoring and for program evaluation and advice and data gathering information relevant to awardees.


Frechtling, J.W., Melvin, M.M., Rog D.J., Thomas, V., Frierson, H., Hood, S., Hughes, G. (2010) The 2010 User-Friendly Handbook for Project Evaluation. Division of Research and Learning in Formal and Informal settings, National Science Foundation,
This Handbook was developed to provide project directors and principal investigators working with the National science Foundation (NSF) with a basic guide for evaluating NSF’s educational projects. It is aimed at people who need to learn more about both the value of evaluation and how to design and carry out an evaluation, rather than those who already have a solid base of experience in the field. It builds on firmly established principles, blending technical knowledge and common sense to meet the special needs of NSF and its stakeholders.


Hood, S., R. Hopson & H. Frierson (Eds.) (2005) The Role of Culture and Cultural Context In Evaluation: A Mandate for Inclusion, the Discovery of Truth and Understanding in Evaluative Theory and Practice. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing
This volume seeks to address select questions drawn from the matrix of the complex issues related to culturally responsive evaluation. Should evaluation be culturally responsive? Is the field heading in the right direction in its attempt to become more culturally responsive? What is culturally responsive evaluation today and what might it become tomorrow? In preparing evaluation tools and analysis, caution must be exercised around existing belief systems that may influence indicators of success, validity or bias. Two chapters are of particular note: (1) Johnson, Elmima. The use of contextually relevant evaluation practices with programs designed to increase participation of minorities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education; (2) Nelson-Barber, S., LaFrance, J., Trumbull, E., & Aburto, S. Promoting culturally reliable and valid evaluation practice; pages 217-235.


LaFrance, J. () Culturally competent evaluation in Indian Country. Special issue: In search of cultural competence in evaluation: Toward principles and practices. New Directions for Evaluation, No. 102, 39-50. Jossey-Bass and the American Evaluation Association
Culturally competent evaluation in Indian Country requires an understanding of the rich diversity of tribal peoples and the importance of self-determination and sovereignty. If an evaluation can be embedded within an indigenous framework, it is more responsive to tribal ethics and values. An indigenous orientation to evaluation suggests methodological approaches, a partnership between the evaluator and the program, and reciprocity.


LaFrance, J. & Nichols, R. (2010) Reframing Evaluation: Definining an Indigenous Evaluation Framework. The Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation, Vol.  23  No.  2  Pages  13–31
The American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC), comprising 34 American Indian tribally controlled colleges and universities, has undertaken a comprehensive effort to develop an “Indigenous Framework for Evaluation” that synthesizes Indigenous ways of knowing and Western evaluation practice. To ground the framework, AIHEC engaged in an extensive con-sultation process including conducting a number of focus groups in major regions of the United States. Cultural experts, Indian educators, and evaluators shared their concerns regarding evalu-ation and described how evaluation fits within a cultural frame-work. This article summarizes the focus group discussions and describes how the framework developed using the key principles of Indigenous ways of knowing and four core values common to tribal communities.


Nichols, Richard (Santa Clara Pueblo) and Joan LaFrance (Turtle Mt. Chippewa) (2006) Indigenous Evaluation: Respecting and Empowering Indigenous Knowledge. The Tribal College Journal, Volume 18 Winter 2006 Issue No. 2


Senese, G. (2005) The PENAL Project: Program evaluation and Native American liability. In S. Hood, R. Hopson, & H. Frierson (Eds.) The Role of Culture and Cultural Context In Evaluation, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing


Smith, L. T. (1999) Decolonizing methodologies: Research and indigenous peoples. London: Zed Books, Ltd.
From the vantage point of indigenous peoples, the term "research" is inextricably linked to European imperialism and colonialism. A framework for an indigenous research agenda is set out that encompasses the processes of decolonization, healing, mobilization, and transformation within four community statuses: survival, recovery, development, and self-determination. Numerous examples of indigenous research projects in New Zealand and North America, including projects concerned with education and language maintenance, demonstrate the ways in which an indigenous research agenda is being articulated and indigenous knowledge is being validated.


The National Science Foundation, Directorate for Education and Human Resources, Division of Research, Evaluation, and Communications (2000) The Cultural Context of Educational Evaluation: The Role of Minority Evaluation Professionals. Workshop Proceedings, June 1-2, 2000
These proceedings serve as a reference point for the Directorate as it builds capacity within the field of educational evaluation. The workshop focused on two themes, around which the report is organized: Academic achievement by underrepresented minorities; and Training and participation of minority professionals in the evaluation of mathematics and science programs.


The National Science Foundation, Directorate for Education and Human Resources, Division of Research, Evaluation, and Communications (2002) The Cultural Context of Educational Evaluation: A Native American Perspective. Workshop Proceedings, April 25-26, 2002
This workshop was aimed at increasing the supply of minority evaluators for science and mathematics, developing a network to identify and share information about available resource materials, compiling lists of Native American evaluation professionals and identifying training and educational opportunities. Themes centered around: Evaluation issues relating to the academic achievement of Native American students; education/training opportunities for Native American evaluators; and developing, maintaining and expanding a network of Native American evaluators.


White, C. & Hermes, M. (2005) Learning to Play Scholarly Jazz: A Culturally Responsive Evaluation of the Hopi Teachers for Hopi Schools Project. In S. Hood, R. Hopson & H. Frierson (Eds.), The Role of Culture and Cultural Context In Evaluation, Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing




How People Learn in Diverse Communities


Banks, J. A., Au, K. H., Ball, A. F., Bell, P., Gordon, E. W., Gutierrez, K., et al (2007) Learning in and out of school in diverse environments: Life-Long, Life-Wide, Life-Deep. Seattle, WA: Center for Multicultural Education
The major assumption of this consensus report is that if educators make use of the informal learning that occurs in the homes and communities of students, the achievement gap between marginalized students and mainstream students can be reduced. A cultural approach to learning recognizes, respects and mobilizes the range of experience, knowledge, cultural practices, languages, and community sources of support that people bring from their varied socio-economic and historical contexts. It focuses on four principles as underpinnings for Life-long (acquisition of fundamental behaviors and real-world information), Life-wide (breadth of experience), and Life-deep (embraces religious, moral, ethical, social values and judgment; language is key here) learning concepts. These principles explore why these concepts should be used in schools and across other educational organizations.


Barnhardt, R., & Kawagley, A. (2005) Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Alaska Native Ways of Knowing. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 36(1), 8-23
This article seeks to extend our understanding of the learning processes that occur within and at the intersection of diverse world views and knowledge systems, drawing on experiences derived from across Fourth World contexts, with an emphasis on the Alaska context in particular. Problem/challenge in engaging students of Indigenous societies is their aversion to an alien institutional culture. The curricula, teaching methodologies, and assessment strategies need to be based on a worldview that adequately recognizes or appreciates the worldview of the population (e.g., notions of an interdependent universe and the importance of place in their societies). Necessary to devise a system of education for all people that respects the epistemological and pedagogical foundations provided by Indigenous as well as Western cultural traditions, identifying common ground between the two knowledge systems.


Bell, P., Lewenstein, B., Shouse, A., & Feder, M. (eds.) (2009) Diversity and Equity. In Learning Science in Informal Environments: People, Places and Pursuits, pp. 209-247. Washington, DC: National Academy Press
This chapter argues that participation and achievement in science are mediated by a complex set of sociocultural and systemic factors not often recognized in science equity efforts. A synthesis of four commonly researched groups (gender, Native American, people with disabilities, urban and rural environments) illustrate common themes that underlie the experiences of individuals with varied cultural and historical backgrounds. Outreach programs and designed spaces environments should be developed in ways that expressly draw upon participants’ cultural practices, including everyday language, linguistic practices, and common cultural experiences. Members of diverse cultural groups can play a critical role in the development and implementation of programs, serving as designers, advisers, front-line educators, and evaluators of such efforts.


Gutiérrez, K., & Rogoff, B. (2003) Cultural ways of learning: Individual traits or repertoires of practice. Educational Researcher, 22(5), 19-25
This article addresses a challenge faced by those who study cultural variation in approaches to learning: how to characterize regularities of individuals’ approaches according to their cultural background. By focusing on the varied ways people participate in their community’s activities, we can move away from the tendency to conflate ethnicity with culture, with assignment to ethnic groups made on the basis of immutable and often stable characteristics. A cultural-historical approach focuses researchers’ and practitioners’ attention on variations in individuals’ and groups’ histories of engagement in cultural practices because the variations reside not as traits of individuals or collections of individuals, but as proclivities of people with certain histories of engagement with specific cultural activities. Thus, individuals’ and groups’ experience in activities—not their traits—becomes the focus.


Lee, C. D. (2008) The centrality of culture to the scientific study of learning and development: How an ecological framework in education research facilitates civic responsibility.. Educational Researcher, 37(5), 267-279
This paper argues that to generate robust and generative theories of human learning and development, researchers must address the range of diversity within human cultural communities, in cognitive, social, physical and biological dimensions, in other words, creating an ecological focus. The article theorizes the relationship between culture and learning in terms of the underlying mechanisms that help to explain how culture operates both to facilitate and to constrain learning. Theories of learning must help us to understand the ways that identity is linked to goal setting and persistence; the ways that competence is very much context dependent; how the exercise of power and the availability of resources can affect opportunity to learn; and how socialization efforts can help youth learn to make sense of and resist those institutional structures and practices that constrain and impede their opportunities to learn. Attention to the meaning of cultural practices within particular communities is crucial so that we are not imposing normative assumptions that have no meaning.


Nasir, N. S., Rosebery, A. S., Warren, B., & Lee, C. D. (2006) Learning as a cultural process: Achieving equity through diversity. In K. Sawyer (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences (1st ed.), (pp. 489-504). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
In this chapter, the authors argue that learning and teaching are fundamentally cultural processes, in which learning and development consists of diverse repertoires of overlapping, complementary or even conflicting cultural practices. A cultural view of learning encompasses adaptive expertise involving the development of flexible knowledge and dispositions that facilitate effective navigation across varied settings and tasks. An expanded view of what counts as scientific thinking and activity – including use of embodied imagining, argumentation, and metaphor for the purposes of theorizing and knowledge building, allows us to see robust, authentic connections between the everyday knowledge and practices of youth from non-dominant groups and those of academic disciplines. We must look beyond the typical connections made in school curricula and identify important continuities of practice. The paper examines characteristics of learning as people go about everyday lives, the specific ways these varies repertoires of practice connect with academic practices and how these repertoires can be recruited in educational opportunities and designs.




Culturally Responsive Science Instruction - Effective Approaches to Educational Design


Aikenhead (2005) Science Education for Everyday Life: Evidence-based Practice. New York, NY: Teacher's College Press
This book provides a comprehensive overview of humanistic approaches to science, approaches that connect students to broader human concerns in their everyday life and culture. Summarizes major worldwide historical findings, focuses on present thinking, and offers evidence in support of classroom practice. The text describes an approach to teaching science (grades 6-12) that animates students’ self-identities covering curriculum policy, teaching materials, teacher orientations and teacher education, student learning, culture studies, and future research.


Ayers, W., Quinn, T., & Stovall, D. (Eds.) (2008) Handbook of Social Justice in Education. New York, NY: Routledge


Ballenger, C. (1997) Social identities, moral narratives, scientific argumentation: Science talk in a bilingual classroom. Language and Education, 11(1), 1-13


Barton, A. C., Ermer, J. L. & Burkett, T. A. (2003) Teaching Science for Social Justice. New York, NY: Teachers College Press
How might science education reflect the values of a socially just and democratic society? An engaging look at several after-school science programs that have turned into community-building experiences. This book presents a combination of in-depth case studies and rigorous theory, this volume offers a series of teaching stories that describe inner city youth's practices of science.


Bouillion, L. M., & Gomez, L. M. (2001) Connecting School and Community with Science Learning: Real World Problems and School-Community Partnerships as Contextual Scaffolds. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38 (8), 878-98
Explores a form of "connected science" in which real world problems and school-community partnerships are used as contextual scaffolds for bridging students' community-based knowledge and school-based knowledge as a way to provide all students opportunities for meaningful and intellectually challenging science learning. The potential of these scaffolds for connected science is examined through a case study in which a team of fifth-grade teachers used the student-identified problem of pollution along a nearby river as an interdisciplinary anchor for teaching science, math, language arts, and civics.


Ladson-Billings, G. (1995) But that’s just good teaching! The case for culturally relevant pedagogy. Theory into Practice, 34(3), 160-165
Describes the centrality of culturally relevant pedagogy to academic success for minority students who are poorly served in public schools, discussing linkages between school and culture, examining the theoretical grounding of culturally relevant teaching in the context of a study of successful teachers of black students. Provides examples of culturally relevant teaching practices.


Lee, C. D. (2007) Culture, Literacy, and Learning: Taking Bloom in the Midst of the Whirlwind. New York, NY: Teachers College Press
Although focused on literacy, this is a highly developed culturally responsive model for disciplinary learning grounded in detailed empirical research on learning. The Cultural Modeling Project, which she presents here, drew on competencies students already had in African American Vernacular English (AAVE) discourse and hip hop culture to tackle complex problems in the study of literature. Using descriptions from classrooms, she describes how AAVE supported student learning and reasoning; how students in turn responded to the reform initiative, and how teachers adapted the cultural framework to their curriculum.


McIntyre, E., Rosebery, A., & Gonzalez, N. (Eds.) (2001) Classroom Diversity: Connecting Curriculum to Students' Lives. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann
These collected papers examine the sociocultural approach to curriculum design, which provides minority and working class students with instruction that puts their knowledge and experiences at the heart of learning. It presents the theoretical framework for linking students' lives with curriculum and specific strategies from teachers who have done so successfully. The stories show African American, Haitian American, Hispanic American, Native American, and rural white students in contextualized learning as they do reading, writing, mathematics, and science across the grades. All of the classrooms use students' household-based funds of knowledge as resources for school-based funds of knowledge, building bridges in nontraditional ways.


Parsons, Eileen Carlton () Culturalized science instruction: Exploring its influence upon black and white students’ achievement.


Rosebery, A., Warren, B., & Conant, F. (1992) Appropriating scientific discourse: Findings from language minority classrooms. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2(1), 61-94


Roth, W. M., & Barton, A. C. (2004) Rethinking scientific literacy. New York, NY: Routledge


Sanchez-Casal, S. & MacDonald, A. A. (2009) Identity In Education: Future of Minority Studies. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan
This edited volume explores the impact of social identity (race, class, gender, sexual orientation, religion and so on) on teaching and learning. Operating within a realist framework, the contributors to this volume (all of whom are minority scholars) consider ways to productively engage identity in the classroom and at the institutional level, as a means of working toward racial democracy in higher education. As realists, all authors in the volume hold the theoretical position that identities are both real and constructed, and that identities are always epistemically salient. Thus the book argues--from diverse disciplinary and educational contexts--that mobilizing identities in academia is a necessary part of progressive (antiracist, feminist, anticolonial) educators' efforts to transform knowledge-making, to establish critical access for minority students to higher education, and to create a more just and democratic society.


Stephens, S. (2000) Handbook for Culturally Responsive Science Curriculum. Fairbanks, AK: Alaska Native Knowledge Network


Warren, B. & Rosebery, A. (1995) Equity in the future tense: Redefining relationships among teachers, students, and science in linguistic minority classrooms. In W. Secada, E. Fennema, & L. Adajian, (Eds.), New Directions for Equity in Mathematics Education, 289-328. New York: Cambridge University Press


Warren, B., Ballenger, C., Ogonowski, M., Rosebery, A., & Hudicourt-Barnes, J. (2001) Rethinking diversity in learning science: The logic of everyday language. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38, 529-552
Offers a perspective on understanding the gap in science learning and achievement that separates low-income, ethnic minority children from more economically privileged students. Discusses how the relationship between everyday and scientific knowledge and ways of knowing has been conceptualized in the field of science education research. Considers two dominant perspectives, continuous and discontinuous relationships.




Establishing Mutually - Beneficial Partnerships


Kania, John and Kramer, Marke (2011) Collective Impact. Stanford social innovation review,
Large-scale social change requires broad cross-sector coordination, yet the social sector remains focused on the isolated intervention of individual organizations.


National Research Council (1993) Oceanography in the next decade: Building new partnerships. Washington, DC: National Academy Press


Radinsky, J., Bouillion, L., Lento, E. M., & Gomez, L. M. (2001) Mutual beneficial partnerships: A curricular design for authenticity. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 33(4), 405-430
In striving to create authenticity in a novel curricular structure, a `mutual benefit partnership’ developed in collaboration with a telecommunications company and four middle schools. The partnership created products of value to the corporate partner as well as to the teachers and students. But attempts to provide significant benefits to all parties of the partnership brought out conflicts in cultural values between school and corporate communities, resulting in both learning opportunities and risks to participants. Mutual benefit from students’ work resulted more from ancillary (or secondary) products of their work than from primary products, suggesting the need to design curricular structures to achieve joint focus of school and corporate participants on the primary products of student work.


Stassun, K., Guadalupe, B., Arnold, L., Edwards, S. (2010) The Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge Program: A Model for Broadening Participation of Underrepresented Groups in the Physical Sciences through Effective Partnerships with Minority-Serving Institutions. Journal of Geoscience Education, v.58, n.3, 135-144




Programmatic Approaches to Broadening Participation in the Sciences


(2000) Bridging the gap: Minorities in marine science. SAML, ASLO, NSF. Marine Sciences Program, Savannah State University, Savannah, GA. AGI Minority Participation Program http://www.agiweb.org/education/mpp/ 2003 AGI Fall Semester Internship in Geoscience Education and Outreach


Barker, L., & Cohoon,J. M. (2007) Using REUs to Retain Female Undergraduates. National Center for Women & Information Technology
Case studies and faculty feedback on REU best practices.


Bingham, B. L., S. D. Sulkin, S. S. Strom and G. Muller-Parker (2003) Increasing diversity in the marine sciences through the Minorities in Marine Science Undergraduate Program. Journal of Geoscience Education, v. 51, p. 474-480


Campbell, P. B., Jolly, E., Hoey, L., & Perlman, L. K. (2002) Upping the Numbers: Using Research-Based Decision Making To Increase Diversity in the Quantitative Disciplines. GE Foundation


Clewell,B. C., de Cohen, C. C., Tsui, L., & Deterdening N. (2006) Revitalizing the Nation's Talent Pool in STEM: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Urban Institute; Washington, DC
The Urban Institute's evaluation of the NSF’s Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation (LSAMP) Program included both process and summative components, seeking to understand both the program's implementation and its success in meeting stated goals. The information learned about the LSAMP program through the process and summative evaluations resulted in three main conclusions and five recommendations, with the overall recommendation to replicate and expand the LSAMP program. The LSAMP model, unlike most intervention efforts for increasing URM participation in STEM, encourages and supports the synergistic efforts of institutional partners, laying the foundation for systemic institutional change. Given LSAMP's demonstrated success, it is important that efforts to replicate and disseminate the model be increased.


Cuker, B. (2001) Steps to increasing minority participation in the aquatic sciences: Catching up with shifting demographics. American Society of Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin, 10:17-21


Cuker, B. (2001) Designing diversity in to COSEE programs: Inclusion of traditionally underrepresented groups in the ocean sciences. The Journal of Marine Education, 17(2):26-29


Cuker, B. (2005) Programmatic approaches to building diversity in the ocean sciences. Marine Technology Society Journal, 39(4):8-11


Cuker, B. (2001) Steps to increasing minority participation in the aquatic sciences: catching up with shifting demographics. American Society of Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin, v. 10, p. 17-21


Duckworth, Angela L., and David Scott Yeager (2015) Measurement Matters: Assessing Personal Qualities Other than Cognitive Ability for Educational Purposes. Educational Researcher, 44 (4): 237–251
There has been perennial interest in personal qualities other than cognitive ability that determine success, including self-control, grit, growth mindset, and many others. Attempts to measure such qualities for the purposes of educational policy and practice, however, are more recent. In this article, we identify serious challenges to doing so.


Grandy, J. (1998) Persistence in science of high-ability minority students: Results of a longitudinal study. Journal of Higher Education, 69(6):589-620


Hrabowski, F.A. (2003) Raising Minority Achievement in Science and Math.. Educational Leadership, 60 (4): 44–49
Describes the achievement gap between minority and non-minority students in science and mathematics. Provides advice to parents, educators, and students on how to raise minority-group achievement. Describes the Meyerhoff Scholars Program at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, which recruits and supports minority students who excel in mathematics, science, and engineering.


Huntoon J. and Lane M. (2007) Diversity in the Geosciences and Successful Strategies for Increasing Diversity . The Journal of Geoscience Education, 55(6) p. 447-457


James Gentile, Kerry Brenner, and Amy Stephens, Editors (2017) Undergraduate Research Experiences for STEM Students: Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities. The National Academies Press
The National Science Foundation commissioned this study by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to examine what is known about UREs and, if possible, to identify best practices that should be applied to future UREs. The committee was also asked to discuss the needs of involved faculty and administrators, to examine costs and benefits, and to provide recommendations for research and practice. The committee approached its analysis of UREs by considering them as part of a learning system that is shaped by forces related to national policy, institutional leadership, and departmental culture, as well as by the interactions among faculty, other mentors, and students. The committee also considered UREs in the context of the goals for students and what research on learning says about how such experiences should be designed to reach those goals. Many existing studies that provide information on how students learn can inform URE designers.


Miller, Casey, and Keivan G. Stassun (2014) A test that fails. Nature, 510 (June): 303–4
A standard test for admission to graduate school misses potential winners. De-emphasizing the GRE and augmenting admissions procedures with measures of other attributes — such as drive, diligence and the willingness to take scientific risks — would not only make graduate admissions more predictive of the ability to do well but would also increase diversity in STEM. Instead of filtering by GRE scores, graduate programmes can select applicants on the basis of skills and character attributes that are more predictive of doing well in scientific research and of ultimate employability in the STEM workforce. Appraisers should look not only at indicators of previous achievements, but also at evidence of ability to overcome the tribulations of becoming a PhD-level scientist.


Powell, J.M., Pyrtle, A.J., and Williamson-Whitney, V.A. (2005) Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD’S) Initiative’s Professional Development Program. OCEANS 2005 MTS/IEEE Conference Proceedings, Vol. 2, 1204- 1209


Pyrtle A.J. and Whitney V.W. (2008) To Attract, Engage, and Mentor: Outcomes from the MS PHD’S in Earth System Science Initiative’s® Pilot Project. The Journal of Geoscience Education, 56(1) p. 24-32


Pyrtle A.J. and Williamson-Whitney V.A. (2007) The Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD’S®) In Earth System Science Professional Development Initiative: Enhancing Intellectual Merit and Broader Impact of Diversity Through Alignment of Vision, Goals and Objectives and Measurement. The Journal of Geoscience Education, 55(6) p. 514-521


Pyrtle, A.J., Powell, J.M, Williamson-Whitney, V.A. (2007) Virtual Community Building for Effective Engagement of Students of Color in Earth System Science: Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science Case Studies. The Journal of Geoscience Education, 55(6) p.522-530


Rajul E. Pandya R. E., Henderson S., Anthes, R. A., and Johnson, R. M. (2007) BEST Practices for Broadening Participation in the Geosciences: Strategies from the UCAR Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science (SOARS®) Program. The Journal of Geoscience Education, 55(6) p. 500-506


Stahl, J. M. (2005) Research is for everyone: Perspectives from teaching at historically black colleges and universities. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24(1), 85-96


Stassun, K., Guadalupe, B., Arnold, L., Edwards, S. (2010) The Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge Program: A Model for Broadening Participation of Underrepresented Groups in the Physical Sciences through Effective Partnerships with Minority-Serving Institutions. Journal of Geoscience Education, v.58, n.3, 135-144


Treisman, Uri (1992) Studying Students Studying Calculus: A Look at the Lives of Minority Mathematics Students in College. The College Mathematics Journal, 23 (5): 362–72
Tonight I would like to describe the evolution of a project that I developed some 15 years ago at the University of California, Berkeley. Let me begin by stating the problem that we were addressing, namely, the rate of failure of Black and Hispanic students in calculus. Calculus was then, and remains today, a major barrier for minority students seeking to enter careers that depend in an essential way on mathematics.


Windham, Thomas L., Stevermer, Amy J., Anthes, Richard A. (2004) SOARS®: An Overview of the Program and Its First 8 Years. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, v. 85, p. 424




Women and Girls in STEM


Amelink, C. & Creamer, E. (2010) Gender Differences in Elements of the Undergraduate Experience that Influence Satisfaction with the Engineering Major and the Intent to Pursue Engineering as a Career. Journal of Engineering Education, (99)1, 81‐92


Barker, L., & Cohoon,J. M. (2007) Using REUs to Retain Female Undergraduates. National Center for Women & Information Technology
Case studies and faculty feedback on REU best practices.


Hanson, S. L. (1996) Gender, family resources, and success in science. Journal of Family Issues, 17(1), 83-113


Hanson, S.L. (2007) Success in science among young African American women: The role of minority families. Journal of Family Issues, 28, 3-33
A conceptual framework that integrates critical gender theory and a multicultural approach is used to examine young African American women's experiences in high school science. Quantitative and qualitative data are used to explore the family's role in the science attainment process. Findings show that these young women feel less welcome in science than do young White women. However, their interest and involvement in science persist because of the family. Both mother's and father's influence is important. Although family variables are associated with success in science in the quantitative data, not all young women acknowledge or verbalize their awareness of this influence in the qualitative data. Instead, the young women often see their actions as independent.


Hill, C., Corbett, C. and St. Rose, A. (2010) Why So Few? Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. AAUW
A study of women's underrepresentation in the STEM fields.


Reuben, Ernesto, Paola Sapienza, and Luigi Zingales (2014) How Stereotypes Impair Women’s Careers in Science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,
Does discrimination contribute to the low percentage of women in mathematics and science careers? We designed an experiment to isolate discrimination’s potential effect. Without provision of information about candidates other than their appearance, men are twice more likely to be hired for a mathematical task than women. If ability is self-reported, women still are discriminated against, because employers do not fully account for men’s tendency to boast about performance. Providing full information about candidates’ past performance reduces discrimination but does not eliminate it. We show that implicit stereotypes (as measured by the Implicit Association Test) predict not only the initial bias in beliefs but also the suboptimal updating of gender-related expectations when performance-related information comes from the subjects themselves.


Starobin, S. S., and F. S. Laanan (2008) Broadening Female Participation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics: Experiences at Community Colleges. New Directions for Community Colleges ,
This chapter presents findings from interviews with female community college students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields regarding their learning experiences, interaction with faculty, and educational and career aspirations.




Engineering


() Women in Engineering ProActive Network (WEPAN) Knowledge Center. Women in Engineering ProActive Network (WEPAN)
Directory of mentoring and networking resources for graduate and undergraduate engineering students.


Amelink, C. & Creamer, E. (2010) Gender Differences in Elements of the Undergraduate Experience that Influence Satisfaction with the Engineering Major and the Intent to Pursue Engineering as a Career. Journal of Engineering Education, (99)1, 81‐92


Gall, K., Knight, D. W., Carlson, L. E.,& Sullivan, J. F. (2003) Making the grade with students: The case for accessibility. Journal of Engineering Education, 92, 337-343.


National Action Council For Minorities In Engineering, Inc. (2013) 2013 NACME Data Book: A Comprehensive Analysis of the "New" American Dilemma.
The 2013 NACME Data Book is described as the most authoritative source on the state of underrepresented minority group (African American, American Indian, and Latino) participation in engineering education and careers. The 2013 NACME Data Book is designed to be accessible and useful to researchers, policymakers, and others. This document consists of an overview and six data decks complete with PowerPoint slides. The flexible format will permit users to customize the data for their own presentations and reports.


Women in Science and Engineering Leadership Institute (WISELI) (2010) Benefits and Challenges of Diversity in Academic Settings. WISELI
The diversity of a university’s faculty, staff, and students influences its strength, productivity, and intellectual personality. Diversity of experience, age, physical ability, religion, race, ethnicity, gender, and many other attributes contributes to the richness of the environment for teaching and research. We also need diversity in discipline, intellectual outlook, cognitive style, and personality to offer students the breadth of ideas that constitute a dynamic intellectual community.


Women in Science and Engineering Leadership Institute (WISELI) (2009) References: The benefits and challenges of diversity. WISELI




General STEM Fields


(2007-2015) Understanding Interventions that Broaden Participation in Science Careers: Conference Reports.
Despite the introduction of intervention programs, persons of color and women remain underrepresented in the science workforce. To encourage members of underrepresented groups to pursue careers in science and engineering, programs targeted to pre-college, undergraduate, and graduate students continue to grow. However, understanding of why some succeed and many more fail eludes us. UI seeks to analyze systematically the key factors contributing to and inhibiting success. Such analysis requires research that is carefully designed and executed over more than 1-2 years’ time. It should not be confused with “program evaluation” that produces evidences of effectiveness. Research studies of interventions look across contexts and populations to inform generalizations about causes and effects.


Allen, W. R. (1992) The color of success: African-American college student outcomes at predominantly white and historically black public colleges and universities. Harvard Educational Review, 62(1), 26-45
Data from survey of 872 African-American students at predominantly white colleges and 928 at historically black colleges suggest that academic achievement is highest for students who have higher educational aspirations, positive faculty relationships, confidence in their college choice. Beyond individual characteristics, academic performance is affected by such factors as campus quality of life, racial relations, social support networks.


Brown, S.V., and Clewell, B.C. (1998) Project Talent Flow: The Non-SEM Field Choices of Black and Latino Undergraduates with the Aptitude for Science, Engineering and Mathematics Careers. Final Report- Alfred P. Sloan Foundation,


Campbell, P. B., Jolly, E., Hoey, L., & Perlman, L. K. (2002) Upping the Numbers: Using Research-Based Decision Making To Increase Diversity in the Quantitative Disciplines. GE Foundation


Claudio, L. (1997) Making more minority scientists. Environmental Health Perspectives, 105(2):174-176


Clewell,B. C., de Cohen, C. C., Tsui, L., & Deterdening N. (2006) Revitalizing the Nation's Talent Pool in STEM: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Urban Institute; Washington, DC
The Urban Institute's evaluation of the NSF’s Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation (LSAMP) Program included both process and summative components, seeking to understand both the program's implementation and its success in meeting stated goals. The information learned about the LSAMP program through the process and summative evaluations resulted in three main conclusions and five recommendations, with the overall recommendation to replicate and expand the LSAMP program. The LSAMP model, unlike most intervention efforts for increasing URM participation in STEM, encourages and supports the synergistic efforts of institutional partners, laying the foundation for systemic institutional change. Given LSAMP's demonstrated success, it is important that efforts to replicate and disseminate the model be increased.


Culotta, E. (Ed.) (1993) Minorities in science: Changing the face of science [Special Section]. Science, 262, p. 1089-1136


Czujko, R., R. Ivie and J. H. Stith (2008) Untapped Talent: The African American Presence in Physics and the Geosciences. American Institute of Physics Report, Pub. R-444. pages i-22 (Sept. 2008)
This paper presents data covering the representation of African Americans among physics and geoscience degree recipients at each stage of the educational system. The data were collected by several statistical agencies. This paper presents a snapshot of the supply side of physics and the geosciences and places the education of African American physicists and geoscientists within the larger context of the educational system and social structural barriers some students must circumvent. The paper identifies institutions that have reduced or removed these barriers, highlights striking contributions of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) in supplying the scientific workforce of African Americans, lists departments that have been successful in attracting and retaining African American students, to use as role models. See page 11 in particular for a Table on BS granting departments in the geosciences at HBCUs.


George, Y.S., Neale, D.S., Van Horne, V., and Malcom, S.M. (2001) In Pursuit of a Diverse Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Workforce: Recommended Research Priorities to Enhance Participation by Underrepresented Minorities. American Association for the Advancement of the Sciences (AAAS)
This report identifies research priorities for URM in STEM from the high school years to the professoriate.


Grandy, J. (1998) Persistence in science of high-ability minority students: Results of a longitudinal study. Journal of Higher Education, 69(6):589-620


Hanson, S. L. (1996) Gender, family resources, and success in science. Journal of Family Issues, 17(1), 83-113


Hanson, S.L. (2007) Success in science among young African American women: The role of minority families. Journal of Family Issues, 28, 3-33
A conceptual framework that integrates critical gender theory and a multicultural approach is used to examine young African American women's experiences in high school science. Quantitative and qualitative data are used to explore the family's role in the science attainment process. Findings show that these young women feel less welcome in science than do young White women. However, their interest and involvement in science persist because of the family. Both mother's and father's influence is important. Although family variables are associated with success in science in the quantitative data, not all young women acknowledge or verbalize their awareness of this influence in the qualitative data. Instead, the young women often see their actions as independent.


Hill, C., Corbett, C. and St. Rose, A. (2010) Why So Few? Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. AAUW
A study of women's underrepresentation in the STEM fields.


Hrabowski, F.A. (2003) Raising Minority Achievement in Science and Math.. Educational Leadership, 60 (4): 44–49
Describes the achievement gap between minority and non-minority students in science and mathematics. Provides advice to parents, educators, and students on how to raise minority-group achievement. Describes the Meyerhoff Scholars Program at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, which recruits and supports minority students who excel in mathematics, science, and engineering.


Huang, G., Taddese, N., & Walter, E. (2000) Entry and persistence of women and minorities in college science and engineering education. NCES Pub. 2000601, National Center on Education Studies


James Gentile, Kerry Brenner, and Amy Stephens, Editors (2017) Undergraduate Research Experiences for STEM Students: Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities. The National Academies Press
The National Science Foundation commissioned this study by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to examine what is known about UREs and, if possible, to identify best practices that should be applied to future UREs. The committee was also asked to discuss the needs of involved faculty and administrators, to examine costs and benefits, and to provide recommendations for research and practice. The committee approached its analysis of UREs by considering them as part of a learning system that is shaped by forces related to national policy, institutional leadership, and departmental culture, as well as by the interactions among faculty, other mentors, and students. The committee also considered UREs in the context of the goals for students and what research on learning says about how such experiences should be designed to reach those goals. Many existing studies that provide information on how students learn can inform URE designers.


National Research Council, and National Research Council (2011) Expanding Underrepresented Minority Participation: America’s Science and Technology Talent at the Crossroads. National Academies Press, AAAS
In order for the United States to maintain the global leadership and competitiveness in science and technology that are critical to achieving national goals, we must invest in research, encourage innovation, and grow a strong and talented science and technology workforce. Expanding Underrepresented Minority Participation explores the role of diversity in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) workforce and its value in keeping America innovative and competitive. According to the book, the U.S. labor market is projected to grow faster in science and engineering than in any other sector in the coming years, making minority participation in STEM education at all levels a national priority.


National Science Board (2003) The science and engineering workforce: Realizing America’s potential. NSB 03-69. National Science Foundation


National Science Foundation (2008) Broadening Participation at the National Science Foundation: A Framework for Action. Washington, D.C.
This report states: "The creative engagement of diverse ideas and perspectives is essential to enabling the transformative research that invigorates our nation's scientific and engineering excellence . . . and provides for the discovery and nurturing of talent wherever it may be found . . .[an] emphasis consistent with the American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI) and the America Competes Act, federal responses to the widespread concern that the U.S. is in danger of losing its position of world leadership in science and technology." The report goes on to present guidelines for NSF’s drive to increase diversity as related to proposal review criteria for intellectual merit and broader impacts. The report addresses strategies for diversifying the reviewer pool, training NSF staff and reviewers on broadening participation, enhancing accountability, communicating guidance and promising practices on broadening participation, and maintaining a portfolio of relevant programs.


National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (2015) Doctorate Recipients from U.S. Universities: 2014. Special Report NSF 16-300,
Annual counts of doctorate recipients are measures of the incremental investment in human resources devoted to science, engineering, research, and scholarship, and they can serve as leading indicators of the capacity for knowledge-creation and innovation in various domains. The changing characteristics of this population over time—including the increased representation of women, minorities, and foreign nationals; emergence of new fields of study; time it takes to complete doctoral study; expansion of the postdoctoral pool; and reduced academic employment opportunities after graduation—reflect political, economic, social, technological, and demographic trends and events.


Reuben, Ernesto, Paola Sapienza, and Luigi Zingales (2014) How Stereotypes Impair Women’s Careers in Science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,
Does discrimination contribute to the low percentage of women in mathematics and science careers? We designed an experiment to isolate discrimination’s potential effect. Without provision of information about candidates other than their appearance, men are twice more likely to be hired for a mathematical task than women. If ability is self-reported, women still are discriminated against, because employers do not fully account for men’s tendency to boast about performance. Providing full information about candidates’ past performance reduces discrimination but does not eliminate it. We show that implicit stereotypes (as measured by the Implicit Association Test) predict not only the initial bias in beliefs but also the suboptimal updating of gender-related expectations when performance-related information comes from the subjects themselves.


Sowell, Robert, Jeff Allum, and Hironao Okahan (2015) Doctoral Initiative on Minority Attrition and Completion. Council of Graduate Schools,
The Doctoral Initiative on Minority Attrition and Completion (DIMAC) takes our understanding of completion and attrition among URM STEM students one step further by collecting both quantitative and qualitative data exclusively on this population from 21 participating institutions, yielding the largest dataset of its kind. This publication reports and synthesizes the findings of the project in order to better inform graduate deans at CGS member institutions as well as the general public.


Stahl, J. M. (2005) Research is for everyone: Perspectives from teaching at historically black colleges and universities. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24(1), 85-96


Starobin, S. S., and F. S. Laanan (2008) Broadening Female Participation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics: Experiences at Community Colleges. New Directions for Community Colleges ,
This chapter presents findings from interviews with female community college students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields regarding their learning experiences, interaction with faculty, and educational and career aspirations.


Treisman, Uri (1992) Studying Students Studying Calculus: A Look at the Lives of Minority Mathematics Students in College. The College Mathematics Journal, 23 (5): 362–72
Tonight I would like to describe the evolution of a project that I developed some 15 years ago at the University of California, Berkeley. Let me begin by stating the problem that we were addressing, namely, the rate of failure of Black and Hispanic students in calculus. Calculus was then, and remains today, a major barrier for minority students seeking to enter careers that depend in an essential way on mathematics.


US President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) (2012) Report to the President: “Engage to Excel: Producing One Million Additional College Graduates With Degrees In Science, Technology, Engineering, And Mathematics”.
This report calls for the implementation of evidence-based practices to increase the number of US STEM graduates by one million additional students over the next decade. Among the suggested techniques are capturing the thrill of discovery and inquiry during students’ first two years as undergraduates and student research partnerships between smaller institutions and large research institutions.


Weiner, Lisa, M Leighton, J. Funkhouser (2000) Helping Hispanic Students Reach High Academic Standards: An Idea Book. US Department of Education
This Idea Book is for district administrators and curriculum coordinators, school principals and teachers, and other educators who seek to understand how Title I, Title VII, and other programs help educators to help Hispanic students and Spanish-speaking ELLs achieve high standards. It describes promising practices that have been demonstrated to be effective by current research, and illustrates how these practices can operate in schools and other community settings that have served Hispanic students for many years or that are learning how to serve a new and growing population.


Whittaker, Joseph A, and Beronda L. Montgomery (2014) Cultivating Institutional Transformation and Sustainable STEM Diversity in Higher Education through Integrative Faculty Development. Innovative Higher Education, Volume 39 (Issue 4): pp 263–75
An urgent need to broaden diversity and support the preparation of students and faculty members along proactive pathways to research and success can be facilitated by targeted faculty development and formalization of policies built on institutional commitment, engagement, and accountability. Involvement of the faculty in building institutional diversity will recognize equity-building initiatives as valid forms of faculty scholarship and as one way to address the growing public problem of educational disparities in the STEM fields. We propose systemic, institutional transformation centered on a foundation of faculty engagement, empowerment, and reward that reflects intentionality and accountability for developing diverse institutional communities.




Geosciences


Bingham, B. L., S. D. Sulkin, S. S. Strom and G. Muller-Parker (2003) Increasing diversity in the marine sciences through the Minorities in Marine Science Undergraduate Program. Journal of Geoscience Education, v. 51, p. 474-480


Cuker, B. (2001) Steps to increasing minority participation in the aquatic sciences: catching up with shifting demographics. American Society of Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin, v. 10, p. 17-21


Czujko, R., and M. Henley (2003) Good news and bad news: Diversity data in the geosciences. Geotimes, 20–22, Sept.


Czujko, R., R. Ivie and J. H. Stith (2008) Untapped Talent: The African American Presence in Physics and the Geosciences. American Institute of Physics Report, Pub. R-444. pages i-22 (Sept. 2008)
This paper presents data covering the representation of African Americans among physics and geoscience degree recipients at each stage of the educational system. The data were collected by several statistical agencies. This paper presents a snapshot of the supply side of physics and the geosciences and places the education of African American physicists and geoscientists within the larger context of the educational system and social structural barriers some students must circumvent. The paper identifies institutions that have reduced or removed these barriers, highlights striking contributions of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) in supplying the scientific workforce of African Americans, lists departments that have been successful in attracting and retaining African American students, to use as role models. See page 11 in particular for a Table on BS granting departments in the geosciences at HBCUs.


Huntoon J. and Lane M. (2007) Diversity in the Geosciences and Successful Strategies for Increasing Diversity . The Journal of Geoscience Education, 55(6) p. 447-457


Karsten, J (2003) Increasing Diversity in the Earth & Space Sciences. Joint Society Conference on Increasing Diversity in the Earth and Space Sciences, 10-12 June 2003. College Park, Maryland


Levine, Roger, R. Gonzalez, S. Cole, M. Fuhrman, and K. Carson LeFlock (2006) The Geoscience Pipeline: A Conceptual Framework. Journal of Geoscience Education, 55, 458-468


National Science Foundation (2001) Strategy for developing a program for opportunities for enhancing diversity in the geosciences. (NSF 01-53), Arlington, VA: NSF


Powell, J.M., Pyrtle, A.J., and Williamson-Whitney, V.A. (2005) Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD’S) Initiative’s Professional Development Program. OCEANS 2005 MTS/IEEE Conference Proceedings, Vol. 2, 1204- 1209


Pride, C. J. (2003) Crisis in the geoscience workforce. Scenes. Skidaway Marine Science Foundation


Pyrtle A.J. and Whitney V.W. (2008) To Attract, Engage, and Mentor: Outcomes from the MS PHD’S in Earth System Science Initiative’s® Pilot Project. The Journal of Geoscience Education, 56(1) p. 24-32


Pyrtle A.J. and Williamson-Whitney V.A. (2007) The Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD’S®) In Earth System Science Professional Development Initiative: Enhancing Intellectual Merit and Broader Impact of Diversity Through Alignment of Vision, Goals and Objectives and Measurement. The Journal of Geoscience Education, 55(6) p. 514-521


Pyrtle, A.J., Powell, J.M, Williamson-Whitney, V.A. (2007) Virtual Community Building for Effective Engagement of Students of Color in Earth System Science: Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science Case Studies. The Journal of Geoscience Education, 55(6) p.522-530


Rajul E. Pandya R. E., Henderson S., Anthes, R. A., and Johnson, R. M. (2007) BEST Practices for Broadening Participation in the Geosciences: Strategies from the UCAR Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science (SOARS®) Program. The Journal of Geoscience Education, 55(6) p. 500-506


S.C. Sanchez, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; L.C. Patino, E.L. Rom, S.C. Weiler, National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA (2009) An Analysis of NSF Geosciences 2009 Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Site Programs.
The NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduate (REU) Program provides undergraduate students with opportunities to conduct research at other institutions than their home universities, and in areas that may not be available at their home campuses. NSF Directorate for Geosciences program officers Lina Patino, Lisa Rom and Susan Weiler, along with researcher Sara Sanchez of the University of Arizona, will discuss results of a survey on REU recruitment methods, student demographics, enrichment activities, and fields of research. The survey was sent to the principal investigators of each of 50 active REU Sites; more than 70 percent of the surveys were returned. The results are being used to examine strengths in REU sites, find opportunities that may be underutilized, and identify community needs for enhancing this NSF-wide program.


Stassun, K., Guadalupe, B., Arnold, L., Edwards, S. (2010) The Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge Program: A Model for Broadening Participation of Underrepresented Groups in the Physical Sciences through Effective Partnerships with Minority-Serving Institutions. Journal of Geoscience Education, v.58, n.3, 135-144


Velasco, A. A. and de Velasco, E. J. (2010) Striving to Diversify the Geosciences Workforce. Eos, v. 91(33), 17 August, p. 289–296


Wilson, Carolyn (2016) Status of the Geoscience Workforce. American Geosciences Institute (AGI)
The Status of the Geoscience Workforce 2016 report is based on original data collected by AGI as well as from federal data sources, professional membership organizations, and industry. The report integrates all of these various data sources into a comprehensive view of the human and economic parameters of the geosciences, including supply and training of new students, workforce demographics and employment projections, to trends in geosciences research funding and economic indicators. Note: fee for download.


Wilson, Carolyn (2015) Status of recent geoscience graduates. American Geosciences Institute,
The report examines the responses to AGI’s Geoscience Student Exit Survey by graduates from the 2014–2015 academic year.


Windham, Thomas L., Stevermer, Amy J., Anthes, Richard A. (2004) SOARS®: An Overview of the Program and Its First 8 Years. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, v. 85, p. 424




Ocean Sciences


(2000) Bridging the gap: Minorities in marine science. SAML, ASLO, NSF. Marine Sciences Program, Savannah State University, Savannah, GA. AGI Minority Participation Program http://www.agiweb.org/education/mpp/ 2003 AGI Fall Semester Internship in Geoscience Education and Outreach


Bingham, B. L., S. D. Sulkin, S. S. Strom and G. Muller-Parker (2003) Increasing diversity in the marine sciences through the Minorities in Marine Science Undergraduate Program. Journal of Geoscience Education, v. 51, p. 474-480


Chandler, K. (2003) Multicultural Pathways to Ocean Sciences Education. Charrette conducted in Spring 2003 by COSEE-SE
Charette participants explored strategies to enhance academic attraction to the ocean sciences. They explored the possibilities of using the coastal heritage and other historically related issues as an additional strategy to introduce African American students to the ocean sciences field.


Cuker, B. (2001) Steps to increasing minority participation in the aquatic sciences: catching up with shifting demographics. American Society of Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin, v. 10, p. 17-21


Cuker, B. (2001) Steps to increasing minority participation in the aquatic sciences: Catching up with shifting demographics. American Society of Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin, 10:17-21


Cuker, B. (2001) Designing diversity in to COSEE programs: Inclusion of traditionally underrepresented groups in the ocean sciences. The Journal of Marine Education, 17(2):26-29


Cuker, B. (2005) Programmatic approaches to building diversity in the ocean sciences. Marine Technology Society Journal, 39(4):8-11


Czujko, R., and M. Henley (2003) Good news and bad news: Diversity data in the geosciences. Geotimes, 20–22, Sept.


Huntoon J. and Lane M. (2007) Diversity in the Geosciences and Successful Strategies for Increasing Diversity . The Journal of Geoscience Education, 55(6) p. 447-457


Karsten, J (2003) Increasing Diversity in the Earth & Space Sciences. Joint Society Conference on Increasing Diversity in the Earth and Space Sciences, 10-12 June 2003. College Park, Maryland


National Marine Fisheries Service (1996) Expanding opportunities in ocean sciences. Proceedings of a conference to strengthen the links between HMSCU undergraduates and oceanic graduate studies, Hampton University, Silver Spring, MD: National Marine Fisheries Service


National Research Council (1993) Oceanography in the next decade: Building new partnerships. Washington, DC: National Academy Press


Pyrtle A.J. and Williamson-Whitney V.A. (2007) The Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD’S®) In Earth System Science Professional Development Initiative: Enhancing Intellectual Merit and Broader Impact of Diversity Through Alignment of Vision, Goals and Objectives and Measurement. The Journal of Geoscience Education, 55(6) p. 514-521


S.C. Sanchez, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; L.C. Patino, E.L. Rom, S.C. Weiler, National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA (2009) An Analysis of NSF Geosciences 2009 Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Site Programs.
The NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduate (REU) Program provides undergraduate students with opportunities to conduct research at other institutions than their home universities, and in areas that may not be available at their home campuses. NSF Directorate for Geosciences program officers Lina Patino, Lisa Rom and Susan Weiler, along with researcher Sara Sanchez of the University of Arizona, will discuss results of a survey on REU recruitment methods, student demographics, enrichment activities, and fields of research. The survey was sent to the principal investigators of each of 50 active REU Sites; more than 70 percent of the surveys were returned. The results are being used to examine strengths in REU sites, find opportunities that may be underutilized, and identify community needs for enhancing this NSF-wide program.


Wilson, Carolyn (2016) Status of the Geoscience Workforce. American Geosciences Institute (AGI)
The Status of the Geoscience Workforce 2016 report is based on original data collected by AGI as well as from federal data sources, professional membership organizations, and industry. The report integrates all of these various data sources into a comprehensive view of the human and economic parameters of the geosciences, including supply and training of new students, workforce demographics and employment projections, to trends in geosciences research funding and economic indicators. Note: fee for download.


Wilson, Carolyn (2015) Status of recent geoscience graduates. American Geosciences Institute,
The report examines the responses to AGI’s Geoscience Student Exit Survey by graduates from the 2014–2015 academic year.


Featured Program!

The Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-Ph.D. Bridge Program

The Fisk-Vanderbilt Master’s-to-PhD Bridge Program focuses on increasing the number of underrepresented minorities in astronomy, biology, chemistry, materials science and physics. Students work towards the Master’s degree at Fisk with the intention to enter a PhD program at Vanderbilt or elsewhere, with access to instructional and research opportunities at both institutions. Tuition, stipend, and medical insurance are provided. Click here to learn more and apply!

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